Human Development Index – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index

Human Development Index

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World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2007 data, published on October 5, 2009)[citation needed]

     0.950 and Over      0.900–0.949      0.850–0.899      0.800–0.849      0.750–0.799      0.700–0.749      0.650–0.699      0.600–0.649      0.550–0.599      0.500–0.549      0.450–0.499      0.400–0.449      0.350–0.399      under 0.350      not available

(Color-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems.

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of “human development” and separate developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdeveloped (low development) countries. The statistic is composed from data on Life Expectancy, Education and per-capita GDP (as an indicator of Standard of living) collected at the national level using the formula given in the Methodology section below.

Contents

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[edit] Origins of the HDI

The origins of the HDI are to be found in the United Nations Development Programme‘s (UNDP) Human Development Reports (HDRs). These were devised and launched by Pakistani Economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990 and had the explicit purpose: ‘‘to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies.’’ [1]. To produce the HDRs, Haq brought together a group of well known development economists including: Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. But it was Amartya Sen’s work on capabilities and functionings that provided the underlying conceptual framework. Haq was sure that a simple composite measure of human development was needed in order to convince the public, academics, and policy-makers that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being. Sen initially opposed this idea, but he went on to help Haq develop the Human Development Index (HDI). Sen was worried that it was difficult to capture the full complexity of human capabilities in a single index but Haq persuaded him that only a single number would shift the attention of policy-makers from concentration on economic to human well-being.[2][3]

The HDI has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports.

[edit] Three dimensions in the HDI

The HDI combines three dimensions:

[edit] Methodology

HDI trends between 1975 and 2004

     OECD      Central and eastern Europe, and the CIS      Latin America and the Caribbean      East Asia      Arab States      South Asia      Sub-Saharan Africa

The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)[4] In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

  • x-index =

    Media_httpuploadwikim_tofck

where

Media_httpuploadwikim_bngau

and

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are the lowest and highest values the variable x can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with ⅓ contributed by each of the following factor indices:

[edit] 2009 report

The 2009 report was released on October 5, 2009, and covers the period up to 2007. It was titled “Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development”. The top countries by HDI were grouped in a new category called “Very High Human Development”. The report refers to these countries as “developed countries”.[5] They are:

  1. Media_httpuploadwikim_qccmi

     Norway 0.971 ( 1)

  2. Media_httpuploadwikim_isigm

     Australia 0.970 ( 2)

  3. Media_httpuploadwikim_ixdqx

     Iceland 0.969 ( 2)

  4. Media_httpuploadwikim_ujffi

     Canada 0.966 ( 1)

  5. Media_httpuploadwikim_fvgrw

     Ireland 0.965 ()

  6. Media_httpuploadwikim_geide

     Netherlands 0.964 ()

  7. Media_httpuploadwikim_wqjks

     Sweden 0.963 ()

  8. Media_httpuploadwikim_jcybj

     France 0.961 ( 3)

  9. Media_httpuploadwikim_uahch

     Switzerland 0.960 ()

  10. Media_httpuploadwikim_yfsdc

     Japan 0.960 ()

  11. Media_httpuploadwikim_vqber

     Luxembourg 0.960 ( 3)

  12. Media_httpuploadwikim_jcmlh

     Finland 0.959 ( 1)

  13. Media_httpuploadwikim_tgbft

     United States 0.956 ( 1)

  1. Media_httpuploadwikim_nghtc

     Austria 0.955 ( 2)

  2. Media_httpuploadwikim_gtjnt

     Spain 0.955 ()

  3. Media_httpuploadwikim_ujjcl

     Denmark 0.955 ( 2)

  4. Media_httpuploadwikim_ajxjh

     Belgium 0.953 ()

  5. Media_httpuploadwikim_dbmgj

     Italy 0.951 ( 1)

  6. Media_httpuploadwikim_ccegh

     Liechtenstein 0.951 ( 1)

  7. Media_httpuploadwikim_eaqlt

     New Zealand 0.950 ()

  8. Media_httpuploadwikim_qgbof

     United Kingdom 0.947 ()

  9. Media_httpuploadwikim_fchst

     Germany 0.947 ()

  10. Media_httpuploadwikim_gajlo

     Singapore 0.944 ( 1)

  11. Media_httpuploadwikim_vehkv

     Hong Kong 0.944 ( 1)

  12. Media_httpuploadwikim_ngdhe

     Greece 0.942 ()

  13. Media_httpuploadwikim_jqqyf

     South Korea 0.937 ()

  1. Media_httpuploadwikim_jhaif

     Israel 0.935 ( 1)

  2. Media_httpuploadwikim_bcepi

     Andorra 0.934 ( 1)

  3. Media_httpuploadwikim_ofhup

     Slovenia 0.929 ()

  4. Media_httpuploadwikim_gleen

     Brunei 0.920 ()

  5. Media_httpuploadwikim_jniab

     Kuwait 0.916 ()

  6. Media_httpuploadwikim_bwdjw

     Cyprus 0.914 ()

  7. Media_httpuploadwikim_rfjmh

     Qatar 0.910 ( 1)

  8. Media_httpuploadwikim_mgifc

     Portugal 0.909 ( 1)

  9. Media_httpuploadwikim_ijcaf

     United Arab Emirates 0.903 ( 2)

  10. Media_httpuploadwikim_cjwnv

     Czech Republic 0.903 ()

  11. Media_httpuploadwikim_klogu

     Barbados 0.903 ( 2)

  12. Media_httpuploadwikim_mdeua

     Malta 0.902 ( 3)

In this report, five countries were promoted from the “medium” category to the “high development” category: Grenada, Peru, Colombia, Turkey, and Lebanon. Furthermore Angola, Lesotho, Uganda and Nigeria left the “low” category and are now in the “medium” group.

[edit] Countries not included

The following nations are not ranked in the 2009 Human Development Index, for being non-UN member, unable, or unwilling to provide the necessary data at the time of publication.

Africa

Asia

Europe

Oceania

[edit] 2008 statistical update

A new index was released on December 18, 2008. This so-called “statistical update” covers the period up to 2006 and was published without an accompanying report on human development. The update is relevant due to newly released estimates of purchasing power parities (PPP), implying substantial adjustments for many countries, resulting in changes in HDI values and, in many cases, HDI ranks.[6]

  1. Media_httpuploadwikim_ixdqx

     Iceland 0.968 ()

  2. Media_httpuploadwikim_qccmi

     Norway 0.968 ()

  3. Media_httpuploadwikim_ujffi

     Canada 0.967 ( 1)

  4. Media_httpuploadwikim_isigm

     Australia 0.965 ( 1)

  5. Media_httpuploadwikim_fvgrw

     Ireland 0.960 ()

  6. Media_httpuploadwikim_geide

     Netherlands 0.958 ( 3)

  7. Media_httpuploadwikim_wqjks

     Sweden 0.958 ( 1)

  8. Media_httpuploadwikim_yfsdc

     Japan 0.956 ()

  9. Media_httpuploadwikim_vqber

     Luxembourg 0.956 ( 9)

  10. Media_httpuploadwikim_cgphg

     Switzerland 0.955 ( 3)

  11. Media_httpuploadwikim_jcybj

     France 0.955 ( 1)

  1. Media_httpuploadwikim_jcmlh

     Finland 0.954 ( 1)

  2. Media_httpuploadwikim_ujjcl

     Denmark 0.952 ( 1)

  3. Media_httpuploadwikim_nghtc

     Austria 0.951 ( 1)

  4. Media_httpuploadwikim_tgbft

     United States 0.950 ( 3)

  5. Media_httpuploadwikim_gtjnt

     Spain 0.949 ( 3)

  6. Media_httpuploadwikim_ajxjh

     Belgium 0.948 ( 1)

  7. Media_httpuploadwikim_ngdhe

     Greece 0.947 ( 6)

  8. Media_httpuploadwikim_dbmgj

     

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